approach to seizure

Seizures require both prompt resuscitation and an approach to diagnosis that includes a wide differential–considering non-convulsive events (eg syncope), a broad etiology of seizure, and potential complications. Using a systems-based approach can help: A C-spine injury, tongue biting complication complication B hypoxia as cause of seizure or consequence of aspiration/chest injury C: CARDIOVASCULAR Cardiac arrhythmia…

approach to INTUBATION

Intubation can save a life or end it, and we need an approach that includes decision-making, preparation, technique and backup approaches After attending the great AIME course, I developed the INTUBATION mnemonic that summarizes these steps:   First decide why they need to be intubated and what problems you may encounter Indication: the system of…

approach to GI bleed

GI bleeds can range from small hemorrhoids to exsanguinating bleeds, and we need a systems-based approach to help resuscitate, diagnose, risk stratify and treat.   A pseudo-GI bleed from swallowed blood risk aspiration from hematemesis B pseudo-GI bleed from hemoptysis C: CARDIOVASCULAR Dysfunctional LV: CHF puts patient at higher risk of GI bleed Outflow: aorto-enteric…

approach to hypertension

Most patients presenting with hypertension are worried by the numbers on their blood pressure machines but don’t require immediate treatment. But we need to be on the lookout for specific causes and complications of hypertension. You can use the expanded ABCs approach to work through the body systems, looking for causes and complications of hypertension…

approach to nausea/vomiting

Vomiting is sometimes assumed to be of GI origin, and dismissed as gastroenteritis if accompanied by loose stool. But vomiting it is a non-specific symptom that can arise from any body system and requires a thorough approach to diagnose and treat its cause and complications. Use the expanded ABCs to work through all body systems.…

approach to fever

Fever is a symptom, of both infectious and non-infectious diseases, and we need a systematic approach to not miss either, and to resuscitate along the way A: ABCDEFGHIJKLMN Abscess, Angina Ludwid Bacterial tracheitis Croup Diphtheria Epiglottitis F G H I Johnson Kawasaki L Mono B: CHEST C H Effusion (malignant, parapneumonic) Sick pneumonia Tumour C:…

approach to weakness

Weakness has a broad differential and requires a broad approach A B: CHEST: Collapse: pneumo Hyperinflate: asthma/COPD Effusion Sick pneumonia Tumour C: CARDIOVASCULAR: Cardiac arrhythmia Around heart: pericardial effusion RV strain: PE Dysfunctional LV: ACS, CHF Incompetent valve Outflow: dissection Volume loss Abdominal bleed Soft tissue bleed Child-bearing: ectopic Urticarial anaphylaxis Lactate sepsis Addisons Rx…