For the patient with an eye problem, use a thorough OPHTHALMOLOGY exam to guide you through the differential


  • On wall: Visual Acuity
  • Phield: retinal field cut, pituitary bitemporal hemianopsia, cortical homonymous hemianopsia
  • Hand follow (extra-ocular motion): blow-out fracture, tumour, orbital cellulitis,


  • Tear: lacrymal, eg dacryocystitis
  • Head: temple (temporal arteritis), pre-auricular lymph node (viral conjunctivitis)
  • Around the eye: lid pathology (chalazion, hordeolum, conjunctivitis, blepharitis), infra-orbital anesthesia (blow-out fracture)


  • Light reflex: cataract, tumour
  • Move: PE (Horner, PCA), RLA (retina, disc, nerve, RAPD)
  • Optic disc: edema (CRVO, neuritis, ICP)

slit lamp

  • Lateral conjunctiva: conjunctivitis, hemorrhage, discharge, foreign body
  • cOrnea: FB, ulcer, dendrite, Seidel test
  • Glaucoma (anterior chamber): acute glaucoma, hyphen, iritis


  • tonometrY: increase (glaucoma, hyphen, retro-bulbar hemorrhage), decrease (rupture globe, iritis)


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